THE DISPERSION OF GREEK EDUCATION 65 fees were charged) it is safer to conclude that the earliest " gram- matici" were simply private teachers in the houses of the great families. (2) Sometime about 190 B.C. came a sharp reaction against everything Greek, due mainly to political circumstances. This manifested itself in the educational sphere not only in the treatise of Cato, to which reference has already been made, but also in the action taken by the Senate at different times to curb the activities of the Greek teachers. In 173 B.C. two Epicurean teachers were expelled from the city " because they propound the doctrine of pleasure." Twelve years later the Senate decreed still more comprehensively that no philosophers or rhetoricians should be tolerated at Rome. (3) The anti-Greek reaction was short-lived. From the time of Andronicus and Ennius, Latin literature, either translated from the Greek or following Greek models, had been growing in extent, and by the middle of the Second Century there was a very general appreciation of literature among the upper classes which led to the institution of " grammar" schools in spite of official disapproval. The actual impulse to the systematic teaching of literature is attributed by Suetonius to the recitations and lectures given by Crates of Mallos, the head of the Pergamene school, when detained in Rome by a broken leg, about 167 B.C. But though Greek literature was the main subject studied at first, a patriotic desire to make the most of all that was good in the educational tradition of Rome had been awakened. " Listen to me," Cicero makes Scipio say in the Republic, " as one not wholly ignorant of Greek ways and yet not inclined to prefer them to our own traditions. Thanks to my father, I got a liberal education, and from childhood I have sought eagerly to instruct myself. Nevertheless, experience and home education have done more to make me what I am than books."* It was the same spirit, taking another form, that made L. /Elius Stilo, a scholarly Roman knight, establish the first Latin grammar school about the beginning of the First Century B.C., and that led to the institution of the schools of Latin rhetoric which came under the disapproba- tion of the Censors as harmful innovations in 92 B.C. From this time onward Latin literature and rhetoric were taught as well as Greek, and became increasingly important branches of instruction. The outcome was a system of education that was Greek in form, but Roman in content.